Diabetes: Symptoms, Treatment, Complications
What exactly is it?
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by the body’s inability to control the amount of glucose in the blood. Glucose is the most common kind of sugar in the body. The body converts food into glucose, which it then uses as an energy source. In healthy humans, insulin aids in the regulation of glucose (sugar) levels. Insulin is a hormone generated by the pancreas (a long, thin organ positioned behind and against the rear of the stomach).
In diabetics, the body either does not create enough insulin or does not utilize the insulin that is produced adequately. As a result, the blood glucose level rises (“hyperglycemia”).
Diabetes mellitus is classified into three types:
a) Type 1, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus. People with this form of diabetes produce little or no insulin in their bodies and must rely on insulin injections on a regular basis to survive and treat their diabetes. It generally begins in infancy, although it may happen at any age. This is more common before the age of 40.
c) Type 2 diabetes (DM2), previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. This is the most prevalent type of diabetes and is closely linked to genetic predisposition and obesity. Although the body generates normal or even high quantities of insulin, several circumstances impair its use (“insulin resistance”). Sedentary lifestyles, bad eating habits, and the resulting obesity are typical factors. It normally begins in maturity, although it is also being noticed in obese teens as well.
c) Gestational diabetes mellitus, often known as gestational diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels throughout pregnancy. It occurs in 5% of all pregnancies but normally goes away after the pregnancy is finished. Women who have experienced gestational diabetes are at a higher risk (up to 40%) of getting type 2 diabetes later in life.
What are the signs and symptoms?
Diabetes symptoms vary depending on the kind and length of the disease. High blood sugar levels are linked to several of the signs and symptoms.
These are some examples: Increased urination, thirst, and hunger
Other common symptoms include:
3.Infections of the urinary tract and vaginal cavity
4. Skin infections, particularly fungal or more severe bacterial infections
8.Loss of weight
9.Genital itching or recurring UTI
10.Slow wound healing
Weight reduction is possible, especially if the quantity of insulin produced by the body decreases. If an insulin deficit is present, the person may feel sleepy and subsequently enter a coma. This is known as ketoacidosis, and it is most common in diabetics. It can happen in DM2 if the diabetes is entirely out of control. Other ketoacidosis symptoms include Deep, fast breathing that occasionally emits a fruity scent.
How is the diagnosis arrived at?
Diabetes mellitus is defined by an elevated amount of glucose or sugar in the blood. Following a medical history and physical examination, the doctor may suspect diabetes mellitus. Several blood sugar tests are used to diagnose diabetes:
Fasting plasma glucose test:
In this test, a person is requested to fast for at least 8 hours before having their blood glucose levels examined. Fasting plasma glucose levels are typically less than 110 mg/dl. A fasting plasma glucose level of more than 126 mg/dl is typically indicative of diabetes mellitus. A fasting glucose level of 110-125 mg/dl is referred to as “impaired fasting glucose.”
Postprandial (PP) plasma glucose: This is measured two hours after a meal and acts as a challenge to the body’s ability to manage blood sugar. A glucose level of greater than 200 mg/dl denotes diabetes mellitus, whereas a level between 140-199 mg/dl is referred to as “impaired glucose tolerance.”
A random plasma glucose test: is one that is performed at any other time. Diabetes is often indicated by a reading of 200 mg/dl or above.
Oral glucose challenge test (oGTT):
Blood glucose is measured two hours after ingesting 75 gm of glucose. This can help diagnose borderline diabetes and a condition known as “impaired glucose tolerance.”
The oral glucose tolerance test:
is the recommended method for detecting pregnancy-induced diabetes. In India, all pregnant women should ideally undergo a blood glucose test 30 minutes after consuming 50 gm of glucose (screening test). If this is abnormal, the lady should have an oGTT with 100 gm glucose (rather than the standard 75 gm). Blood samples are then obtained at one-hour to three-hour intervals (i.e., 1, 2, and 3 hours post-glucose).
What is the procedure?
Although diabetes cannot be cured, it may be effectively managed. The primary goal of all methods of diabetes therapy is to obtain as close to normal blood glucose management, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels as feasible. This, in conjunction with a healthy lifestyle, will aid in the improvement of well-being and the prevention of long-term consequences.
Continue to be Active:
Being active is beneficial to everyone, but it is especially crucial for diabetics. Physical activity, together with balanced food and medicine, will help you control your diabetes and avoid long-term consequences. Never be hesitant to seek guidance if you have any reservations about being involved.
What Medications Are There?
People with diabetes may require extra therapy, such as medication to manage their blood pressure and blood lipids, in addition to adopting lifestyle modifications. Your specialist decides on treatment. However, you should be aware of the timings, dose, and function in the body.
Stopping diabetes therapy on your own might cause a slew of issues.
What are the difficulties?
Hypoglycemia is a frequent condition that can occur in patients who are being treated with oral medicines or insulin. Insulin
Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) can be life-threatening, therefore it’s critical to respond quickly.
Low blood sugar: a level less than 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) — happens when your blood contains too much insulin and not enough sugar (glucose). Low blood sugar is more prevalent in insulin users, although it can also happen if you take oral diabetic treatments.
When your blood sugar is low, you may feel the following symptoms: jittery or nervous, tired, sweaty, hungry, irritable, impatient, cold, or confused.
You can also experience tingling around your mouth.
Causes of blood sugar swings
1.A blood sugar value of greater than 180 mg/dL, or any reading over your goal range, is considered excessive.
2.A blood sugar level of 300 mg/dL or above is hazardous.
3.Anything that raises your blood sugar might cause it to spike.
4.The absence of:
5.The proper dosage or kind of diabetic medication,
6.being sick or worried,
7.forgetting to take your diabetic medication or insulin,
8.Exercising less than usual
9.Everything from eating more carbs than normal can induce an increase in blood sugar levels.
Although it is inconvenient, blood sugar levels can be abnormally high for no apparent cause.
These elevated levels might be the first indicator of an infection, sickness, or stress.
Because blood sugar levels might spike when you are unwell, consult with your doctor about developing a “sick day plan” to manage your diabetes when you have a cold, flu, or other sickness.
What exactly is the homecare treatment?
Diabetes in Pregnancy
Pre-diabetes occurs when a person’s glucose level is greater than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes. Pre-diabetes is diagnosed when the hba1c level exceeds 6% -6.4%.
A person with pre-diabetes can avoid developing diabetes by doing the following:
1. Improving diet
1.Increase intake of fiber-rich foods such as whole grains, legumes, vegetables, and fruits.
2.Select meals that are lower in fat and saturated fat, such as substituting saturated fat products with vegetable oils high in unsaturated fat or utilizing low-fat spreads.
3.Instead of cream and full-fat milk, choose skimmed or toned milk and goods.
4.Select lean meats over fatty meats and processed meat items.
5.By varying cooking methods such as steaming, pressure cooking, boiling, and so on.
6.Instead of cakes, cookies, and nankeens, choose fruits, unsalted almonds, or low-fat snacks.
2. Increasing physical activity
Increasing physical activity to at least 30 minutes per day, five days per week.
3. By losing weight,
elevated blood glucose levels can return to normal, lowering the risk of developing T2D.
Weight loss advantages
1.It lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer.
2.It lowers blood pressure and cholesterol.
3.Reduces lipids and glucose levels in the blood.
Advantages of an Active Lifestyle
1.Explore ways to burn calories.
2.Preserves muscle and bone in the body.
3.Boosts your metabolic rate.
4.Aids in appetite control.
5.Improves one’s health.
Maintaining a healthy weight, eating a healthy balanced diet rich in fiber and fruits and vegetables, and being physically active are all vital parts of controlling blood sugar levels and preventing other health concerns.